Engineering Workshop MECHANICAL THEORY

10 Measuring Instruments and their Uses in Engineering Workshop, AutoCAD Commands

Measuring Instruments plays a vital role in the Engineering Workshop. The Instruments duty is to measure the given specimen according to the given dimensions. Without these instruments, it is not possible to measure the dimensions of the specimen. Therefore, In this article, I will be explaining the 10 Measuring Instruments and their Uses in Engineering Workshop in a detailed way.

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Read:3 Types of Marking Out Tools used in Fitting – Engineering Workshop

Before knowing the instruments,yo u need to know the units of measurement in both C.G.S and M.K.S System and are as follows.

1.Metric system(C.G.S)

  • Length is measured in centimeter (cm)
  • Mass is measured in grams (gm)
  • Time is measured in second (s)

2.S.I system(M.K.S)

  • Length is measured in meter (m)
  • Mass is measured in Kilograms (kg)
  • Time is measured in second (s)
10 Measuring Instruments and their Uses in Engineering Workshop
10 Measuring Instruments and their Uses in Engineering Workshop

10 Measuring Instruments and their Uses in Engineering Workshop:

The 10 Measuring Instruments and their uses are presented below.

  1. Steel rule & Measuring Tape
  2. Surface Plate
  3. Divider
  4. Try square
  5. Inside Calliper
  6. Outside Calliper
  7. Odd leg caliper
  8. Vernier Calliper
  9. Micrometer
  10. Vernier Height Guage 

The detailed explanation of 10 Measuring Instruments and their uses are shown below.

1.Steel rule & Measuring Tape

Steel Rule:

  • It is an instrument in geometry which is used to measure the length, breadth, and height of the given specimen

Measuring Tape:

  • It is a flexible form of a ruler.
  • It is calibrated in terms of mm, cm and inches.

2.Surface  Plate

  • The Surface plate is used for testing the flatness of a w/p.
  • It is more precise than the marking table.
  • The surface plate is made up of C.I. or hardened steel or Granite stone.

Read: The Surface Plate used in Fitting-Engineering Workshop

3.Divider:

This is used for marking circles, arcs, laying out perpendicular lines, bisecting lines etc. on the given specimen.

Read: Divider-Measuring Tools used in Engineering Workshop

4.Trysquare:

  • It is used for marking and checking the right angles (Flatness & Squareness) of the given workpiece.
  • These Try squares come in various sizes from 75mm-300mm.

5.Inside caliper:

The inside caliper is used to measure the internal size of an object.

Read: Inside Caliper-Measuring Tools used in Engineering Workshop

6.Outside Calliper:

  • The outside caliper is used to measure the external size of an object.

Read: Outside Caliper-Measuring Tools used in Engineering Workshop

7.Odd-Leg Caliper:

  • This is also called “Jenny Caliper”.
  • This is used for marking parallel lines from a finished edge and also for locating the center.

8.Vernier Calipers

  • Vernier Callipers is used to measure the dimensions of the given specimen like diameter(Outer Dia and Inner dia), length and depth etc. For detailed information, click on the below link.
  • L.C. of Vernier Callipers is 0.02 mm.

Read: Vernier Callipers- Formula, Construction, Expt.-Every Engineer Must know

9.Micrometer

A micrometerr is used to measure the diameter of the given specimen only. It is not used to measure the depth of an object which can be done by measuring the depth probe of Vernier calipers.

  • L.C. of Micrometer is 0.01 mm.

10.Vernier Height Guage

  • A height gauge is a measuring device used either for determining the vertical distances or for the repetitious marking of items to be worked on.
  • The capacity of the height gauge is specified by the maximum height it can measure.
  • It varies from 150 mm to 1000 mm.

For Diagram and Parts of Vernier Height Guage, Click Here

This is the complete explanation of the 10 Measuring Instruments and their uses in a detailed way.

A Part from the Measuring Instruments used in Workshop, I will discuss a few types of instruments used in Production Labs also.

So, Let’s Start…

  1. Surface Measuring Instruments
  2. Linear Measuring Instruments
  3. Angular Measuring Instruments
  4. Taper Measuring Instruments

The explanation of the above Measuring Instruments is as follows.

1.Surface Measuring Instruments:

Under Surface Measuring Instruments, we have

  1. Profilometer
  2. Optical flat
  3. Surface Gauge
  4. Surface edge
  5. Surface plate

2.Linear Measuring Instruments:

Linear measuring instruments are divided into 4 categories and are as follows.

  1. Non–Precision Instrument
  2. Precision Instrument
  3. Comparators
  4. Measuring Machines

The measuring instruments which come under Non-Precision Instruments are

  1. Depth Gauge
  2. Dividers
  3. Steel rule
  4. Telescopic Gauge
  5. Calipers

The measuring instruments which come under Precision Instruments are

  1. Micrometers
  2. Slip Gauges
  3. Vernier Calipers
  4. Height Gauges

The measuring instruments which come under Comparators are

  1. Pneumatic
  2. Mechanical
  3. Optical
  4. Electrical

The measuring instruments which come under Measuring Machines are

  1. Co-Ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM)
  2. Tool Maker’s Microscope

3. Angular Measuring Instruments:

Angular measuring instruments are used for measuring the angularity of the given components. They are classified as

  1. Precision Instruments
  2. Non – Precision Instruments

Non – Precision Instruments

  1. Combination set
  2. Protractors
  3. Adjustable bevel

Precision Instruments

  1. Clinometers
  2. Bevel Protractor
  3. Dividing head
  4. Spirit level
  5. Sine bar
  6. Angle Gauge
  7. Autocollimators

4.Taper Measuring Instruments:

Taper measuring instruments are used for the measuring slope type of surfaces on the components.

  1. Taper micrometer
  2. Toolroom microscope
  3. Bevel Protractor
  4. Sine bar and dial gauge
  5. Autocollimators
  6. Slip gauges, Rollers and micrometer

AutoCAD Commands:

AutoCAD is one of the basic tools which is used in both the small scale and large scale industries. Autocad is the first software which has the ability to draw 2D Sketches and later it has upgraded to 3D models also. In this article, I will be listing out all the Editing commands, drawing commands, creating layers in Autocad and all the Shortcuts which are essential in using Autocad Software. 

autocad commands and its applications
AutoCAD commands and its applications

Image Credits:digitiseit

Tabular Column: Click on the links to Navigate

1.AutoCAD Commands

2.Drawing Commands in AutoCAD

3.Edit Commands in AutoCAD

4.Function Keys in AutoCAD

5.AutoCAD Applications

6.AutoCAD Features

AutoCAD Commands:

Drawing Commands in AutoCAD:

Command Name Short keys Menu Bar Result of command  
Line Line/L  Draw>Line Drawing a line from one point to another.
Arc       Arc/A Draw> Arc,Radius,Center Drawing arcs based on radius, points, angles.
Circle Circle/C Draw>Circle>

Center>Radius

Draw a circle based on a center point & radius, diameter.
Spline         Spline Spline A spline is used to create the different path of Lines
Ellipse Ellipse Ellipse Ellipse of different sizes
Polygon Polygon Polygon Any No. of sides can be drawn by using this command
Rectangle Rec Rectangle Used to create rectangular bars or boxes.
Polyline Poly  Draw>poly line An advanced of a line without any breaks.
 Copy  CO –>Enter    Modify>Copy  Used to copy any entity
Hatch H–>Enter   Draw>Hatch Used to fulfill the line segments in the selected area.
Trim TR–>Enter  Modify>Trim  Remove unnecessary lines and points in the sketch region.
Mirror   MI–>Enter  Modify>Mirror  Creates a mirror image of a selection set or an object.
Offset Select object > O–>Enter   Modify>Offset  Offsets set an object (parallel) by a set distance.
Extend  EX–>Enter  Modify>Extend  Extends objects up to a selected boundary edge.
Fillet  F–>EnterR–>Enter  Modify>Fillet  Creates a round corner between two lines
Chamfer CHA–>Enter  Modify>Fillet  Creates a sharp corner between two lines.
 Scale   SC–>Enter  Modify>Scale  Used to change the size of the drawing.

Drawing Commands in AutoCAD:

COMMAND SHORT KEY        RESULT
 DIMENSION STYLE  D-ENTER Opens dimension style manager interface.
 IMAGE IM – ENTER Launch image manager.
 D VIEW  DV – ENTER Perspective view.
LEADER LE-ENTER Leader line with annotation(TEXT)
MOVE M-ENTER Move the selected object from one place to another place.
LIST LI-ENTER Display information about drawing in a text window.
ERASE E – ENTER Erase a selected drawing.
JP GOUT JP GOUT-ENTER Creates a JPEG file of current drawings.
DONUT  DO-ENTER  Draw a solid donut shape.
DIVIDE  DIV-ENTER Inserts point node a set division.
MATCH PROPERTIES MA-ENTER Match properties of an object.
 DIST  DI -ENTER Check a distance between selected points.
 AD CENTER  DC-ENTER  Opens design center interface.
ROTATE RO – ENTER Rotate a selection of objects.
PAN P-ENTER To adjust drawing positions.
LAYOUT LO-ENTER Creates a new layout Interface.
 UNITS UN – ENTER Display drawing unit interface.
W BLOCK W – ENTER Write a block.
 CUSTOMIZE CUI – ENTER Opens customize user interface dialogue.
TABLE TB – ENTER Opens insert a table dialogue box.
OPTIONS OP-ENTER Open options dialogue box.
TEXT T – ENTER Write text.
TOOL PALETTES TP – ENTER Display tool palette interface box.
PURGE PU-ENTER Opens purge interface box to remove unused elements.
LAYER LA-ENTER Opens the layer interface.
PROPERTIES PR-ENTER Opens properties dialogue box.
UNDO U – ENTER Select the last command.
COLOR COL – ENTER Opens select color dialogue box. 
BLOCK B-ENTER Opens block dialogue box. 
SPELL SP – ENTER Spell check a selection – drawing check entire drawing.
 VIEW V – ENTER  Opens view Manager dialogue box.
EXPLODE X – ENTER Explode single segment to component parts.
PLOT CTRL-P Opens plot/print interface box.
RENAME REN – ENTER Opens rename interface box to rename blocks, layers, etc

Edit Commands in AutoCAD:

Edit commands are used to Edit the given sketch in Autocad software.

edit commands in autocad
edit commands in AutoCAD
 
Modify Toolbar
S.No. Name of the Command
1 Erase
2 Copy
3 Mirror
4 Offset
5 Array
6 Move
7 Rotate
8 Scale
9 Stretch
10 Trim
11 Extend
12 Break at point
13 Break
14 Join
15 Chamfer
16 Fillet
17 Blend curves
18 Explode

Function Keys in AutoCAD:

COMMAND SHORT KEY  RESULT
TEXT SCR F2 Open previous using command list
HELP F1 Opens Autocad help
COORDS   F6 (or) CTRL+D Coordinate display on/off
SNAP F9 (or) CTRL+B snap on/off
DYN MODE F12 Dynamic input ON/OFF
ORTHO F8 (or) CTRL+L Ortho ON/OFF
GRID F7 (or) CTRL+G Grid ON/OFF
POLAR             F10 (or) CTRL+U Polar ON/OFF
OSNAP TRACK F11 (or)
CTRL+W
Object snap tracking ON/OFF
ISO PLANE

(TOP,RIGHT,LEFT)

 F5 (or) CTRL+E  Iso planes activate
OSNAP F3  Osnap ON/OFF

AutoCAD in Industrial Applications:

  • AutoCAD in Manufacturing Field
  • AutoCAD as an architectural planning tool
  • AutoCAD as an engineering drafting tool
  • AutoCAD in 3D Printing
  • AutoCAD as a graphic design tool
  • AutoCAD in the fashion industry
  • AutoCAD as an industrial design tool
  • AutoCAD in Mechanical Engineering

AutoCAD Features:

  • Revisions and modifications
  • 3D View
  • Storage and accessibility
  • Speed
  • Accuracy

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