Engineering Workshop Machining MECHANICAL THEORY

CNC Machine Parts:NC, CNC, Parts of CNC Machine, Servomotor, Applications

CNC Machine Parts: NC, CNC, Parts of CNC Machine, Applications:

If Each and every axis of a machine tool is controlled by using numbers or numerals it is called as a Numerical Controlled Machine Tool. (NC Machine).

 What is CNC Machine?

If Each and every axis of a machine tool is controlled by using a mini computer[which can run by means of Coding(G-Codes & M-Codes)] called as Computer Numerical Controlled Machine(CNC).

CNC Machine Parts-NC, CNC, Parts of CNC Machine, Servomotor, Applications
CNC Machine Parts-NC, CNC, Parts of CNC Machine, Servomotor, Applications

CNC Machine Parts:

  1. MCU or CPU
  2. Drive Unit (Servomotor)
  3. Feedback Devices
  4. Mini Computer
  5. Very Few Manual Controls

1.MCU:(Memory Controlled Unit)

MCU is working as a brain of human being i.e. MCU is taking input information from the input devices, analyze the data, and all these decisions will be implemented by using output devices available in the CNC machine.

The Input Information is in the form of decimal system and as the machine can understand only the Binary System of information, a device is required in MCU to convert the decimal to binary and vice versa and that device are called as Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU).

2.Drive Unit:

It is the device used for converting Electrical energy into Mechanical energy which is required for traveling the axis.

Ex: Electric motor.

Here we can use Servo Motor as the drive unit in CNC Machining.


It is also working similar to that of stepper motor but additionally, there is a quick action Braking System available in the motor so that whenever the power supply is getting stopped, the Braking System will be activated and stops all the moving parts.

Hence it is possible to get the high positional accuracy of the machine. Because the Servo Motors are not available at the time of development of the NC machine, the stepper motor can be used as a drive unit.

3.Feedback Devices:

It is a Displacement Measuring Equipment used to measure the actual distance traveled by the Axis and giving it as a feedback to the MCU and the MCU will compare the distance traveled by the axis with the distance to be traveled and determines the difference in distance.

The MCU will calculate the no.of pulses and send it to the drive unit. This process continues in the form of a cycle.

Feedback Device→MCU→Drive Unit.

4.Mini Computer:

Due to the usage of the minicomputer, the program will be fed into the machine through a keyboard and kept in the memory of a mini computer in the form of a software programme.

Due to the above programme, the operation will perform without the intervention of the operator and the dimensional accuracy is also high.

5.Very Few Manual Controls:

Even though the above parts are present in the CNC machine, still the manual interventions are required for switching ON and OFF, loading and unloading of the workpiece etc called as manual controls.

These are the CNC Machine Parts which are explained in a detailed manner.

Advantages of CNC Machines:

  • Due to Servo Motors as drive units, the positional accuracy of the component produced is better.
  • Feeding the program into the machine through the keyboard is very easier.
  • Duplication of software program will be easier i.e.the software program can be copied into the floppy or Disks and can Copy into any number of Machines.
  • Because of the software programme, the life of a programme is infinity.
  • Design modifications can be easily Incorporated into the existing program.
  • Due to the availability of Graphics simulation software in a minicomputer, the cutting path will be generated for the program fed into the machine and based on the cutting path, it is possible to identify whether the program is right or wrong.
  • Because of very few manual controls, complete automation of the CNC machine is possible.

This is the explanation of CNC Machine Parts: NC, CNC, Parts of CNC Machine, Servomotor, Applications in a detailed way.


One Comment

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