Engineering Workshop Machining MECHANICAL THEORY Non-Traditional Machining

Electrochemical Machining(ECM), Laser Beam Machining(LBM):Working, Advantages, Limitations, Applications,Laser Projects

Electrochemical Machining (ECM): In this process, the combination of electrical energy and chemical energy makes the removal of material from the surface of a workpiece. It works on the principle of Faraday’s law of electrolysis.

Principle-Faraday’s law of electrolysis: The mass of a substance deposited or liberated at any electrode on passing a certain amount of charge is directly proportional to its chemical equivalent weight.

Electrolyte used: NaCl (Conducting Electrolyte).

Wear Ratio: Infinity (because of no Tool Wear)

DC Power Supply: (3-30)V

The Positive terminal is given to the Workpiece and the Negative terminal is given to the Tool.

Tool Used:

The tool used in the Electrochemical Machining Process is either Copper or Brass or Stainless steel etc.

Properties Possessed by the Tool:

It must possess high

  • Thermal Conductivity
  • Electrical conductivity and
  • Corrosion resistance.

Optimum Gap:

The optimum gap maintained between the tool and workpiece is 0.5 to 2 mm.

MRR(Material Removal Rate):

The initial Material Removal Rate(MRR) mainly depends upon the number of Ions displaced from the workpiece.

The number of Ions displaced is directly proportional to

  • The current passing through the circuit
  • The gram atomic weight of workpiece materials.
  • The electrical conductivity of the electrolyte.

Diagram of Electrochemical Machining(ECM):

Electrochemical machining process
Electrochemical machining process

The electrochemical machining setup consists of

  • Fixture: To hold the table.
  • Table: To hold the workpiece.
  • Workpiece
  • Tool
  • Electrolyte
  • Pump(Pumps electrolyte to work region)
  • Filter(Filters the electrolyte)
  • Pressure gauge(To check the pressure)
  • Flowmeter
  • Feed unit (Servomotor)
  • Power supply.

Working of Electrochemical Machining (ECM) Process:

The electrolyte is pumped to the work region by the pump via a filter, pressure gauge, flow meter and finally, it enters into the work region from the passage.

When the Power supply is given an optimum gap is maintained between the tool and workpiece because of Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, the ions have started displacing from the workpiece and trying to deposit over the tool.

Before the ions are depositing on the tool, the electrolyte present between tool and workpiece is pumped out. Then, the ions also moving along with electrolyte without depositing on the tool.

From the above, the mechanism of material removal is Ion displacement and because there is no disturbance taking place in the tool, the same tool can be used for producing an infinite number of components.

Hence, we can say that  the wear ratio of the tool is infinity(because of no tool wear)

This is the detailed explanation of the electrochemical machining process along with the basic terms and working.

Advantages of Electrochemical Machining(ECM) Process:

  • Complex Concave curvature components can be easily produced by using Complex Concave curvature tools.
  • Because of ion displacement, the surface finish produced is excellent.
  • Because no forces are acting, no residual stresses will be present.because of no heat generation, no thermal effects are present on the workpiece.
  • Because of no tool wear, the same tool can be used for producing an infinite number of components.

Disadvantages of Electrochemical Machining(ECM) Process:

  • Workpiece material must be electrically conductive.
  • Out of all the Non-traditional machining methods, electrochemical machining requires the highest specific cutting energy Therefore, the cost of machining will be high.
  • This is preferable for producing contours only but not for holes.

Applications  of Electrochemical Machining Process:

  • It is mainly used for producing Complex concave curvature components such as Turbine blades etc.
  • The ECM process is used for profiling and contouring, die sinking operation, drilling, trepanning and micromachining.

This is the explanation of Electrochemical Machining Process with its advantages, limitations, and applications in a detailed way.



[Not in Syllabus] of WMP…


Laser Beam Machining Operation:


If you are a GATE student, then this article is for you. In this article, I had clearly mentioned various important points which are highlighted so that you can grab easily. When the power supply is given to the laser gun it is producing very high-intensity electromagnetic waves in the form of a beam called as a laser beam with a wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 70 micrometer.

When this high-intensity electromagnetic wave beam is incident on the workpiece, the electromagnetic wave energy is converted into heat energy based on surface phenomena radiation heat transfer.

Laser Beam Machining
Laser Beam Machining operation
  • Due to this, the surface layer of the workpiece is getting melting and evaporating so that the mechanism of material removal is melting and evaporation.
  • As the first layer evaporates, then the next layer of material is exposing for electromagnetic waves, melting and evaporating.
  • Like this, layer by layer of work material is getting melting and evaporating hence it is looking like a ladder, therefore, the mechanism of material removal also called a cladding operation.

Tool material for Laser Beam Machining operation:

  • No tool, but laser gun is made by using Ruby Rod as a material.
  • Medium: atmospheric air
  • Wear Ratio: infinity.

Advantages of Laser Beam Machining operation:

  1. No vacuum is required.
  2. No electrical conductivity of workpiece is required.
  3. Machining zone will be seen by a machine operator.
  4. Because of the high flexibility of Ruby rod, the zigzag holes can be produced easily with Laser Beam Machining.

Disadvantages:

  1. Power requirement for Laser Beam Machining is very high.
  2. Highly reactive metals can’t be machined.

Applications:

  1. No vacuum is required.
  2. Mainly used for producing holes in the diesel injection nozzle.
  3. Also used for producing blind holes, Narrow slots in the workpieces.

If the lower amount of power supply is given to the Ruby rod, the intensity of the electromagnetic waves is reducing. Therefore the heat generated in the workpiece is sufficient to melt and join the blades called a laser beam welding operation.

On the practical conditions, the wavelength of the laser beam is about 0.4 to 0.6 micrometer only.



Laser Project for Mechanical Engineering Students:


Laser Instruments are generally used to cut the sheet in Manufacturing or Production or It will also be used to take the information from the bar code pasted on the components. Those who have an interest in taking up the Laser Project can look at the information which is placed below.

Laser Project for Mechanical Engineering Students:

The Laser Project is shown below:

1.Experimental Investigation of Square Drilling Through ND-YAG Laser of Titanium Steel Sheets with Various Parameter.

2.Some Experimental Investigation of ND-YAG Laser Cutting of High Carbon Steels.

3.Experimental Investigation of Laser Cutting of Low Carbon Steel Thin Sheets using 02 Assist Gas.

4.Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Cutting Parameter in N D-YAG Laser Cutting of copper Foils Through Various Process parameter.

5.Experimental Investigation of N D-YAG Laser Profile Cutting of Titanium Steel Sheets With Various Gases.

6.Analysis and Optimization of Cutting Parameter In ND-YAG Laser Cutting of High Carbon Steels sheet.

7.Some Experimental Investigation of N D-YAG Laser Cutting of Thin Copper sheets.

8.Experimental Investigation of N D-YAG Laser Cutting of High Carbon Steels with Various Gases.

9.Experimental Investigation of ND-YAG LASER Cutting of high Carbon Steel Sheets with Various Gases and Parameter.

10.Finite Element Analysis in ND-YAG Laser Cutting of Carbon Steels Sheet with Various Process Parameters.

11.Experimental Investigation of ND_YAG Laser Cutting of SS Sheets with various Gases.

12.N D_YAG Laser Cutting of High Carbon Steels with Various Thickness and Constant Parameter.

13.Experimental Investigation of Laser Surface Hardening of High Carbon Steel.

14.Experimental Investigation of Square Drilling Through ND-YAG Laser of High Carbon Steel Sheets With Various Parameter.

This is the complete list of Laser Project for Mechanical Engineering Students in a detailed way.

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