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Lathe Machine-22 Parts of Lathe & 11 Lathe Operations You must Know

22 Parts of Lathe A Mechanical Engineer Must Know: Lathe Machine is used in all the Engineering applications and also in the college Workshops. Lathe machine is used to perform all the basic operations such as drilling, cutting, tapping, turning etc. with the help of different tools placed in the work environment.

Lathe machine consists of various parts such as bed, lead screw, guideways, prime mover, transmission system, spindle, chuck, headstock, tailstock, Main drive, carriage, Feed Gear Box,Thread Chasing Dial, Split nut, Carriage, Slideways with Saddle, Compound Rest, Tool Post, Tailstock with Dead Centre, Quill and some of the accessories are mentioned in this post. So, Read this article till the end so that you can understand all the lathe parts in a detailed manner.

Lathe Machine Diagram:

lathe machine parts
lathe machine parts

Lathe Parts-22 Parts of Lathe A Mechanical Engineer Must Know:

The 22 Lathe Parts are presented below in a detailed manner.

Lathe Parts-1.Bed:

Functions:

    • It should be rigid enough to withstand for the forces acting during machining and self-weight of the workpiece.
    • It should have high damping qualities i.e. it can absorb the vibrations induces during machining.
    • It should act as a house for keeping some of the parts in a machine tool like Prime mover of a machine, gearbox, coolant tank etc.

Material:

Grey C.I: It is used for manufacturing of bed of the machine because it has high damping qualities and rigid qualities.

Manufacturing Method:

Casting is a manufacturing method because it gives high damping qualities.

Shape:

The shape of the bed is selected such that the reduction in the rigidity of machine tool should be minimum and it should provide the maximum amount of the space.

Lathe Parts-2.Lead Screw:

    • It is used for converting rotational movement into linear movement.
    • The material of the lead screw must be selected such that it should have high wear resistance
    • Due to this, the best preferable material for manufacturing of lead screw is the brass.
    • Because of the sagging problem, the maximum length of the brass lead screw will be 2 meters only.
    • The type of threads used on the lead screw is square thread because it gives the highest efficiency of power transmission. Ex: Buttress Thread.

Lathe Parts-3.Guideways:

    • They are guiding the moving parts in a machine tool. They act as a mediator for transmitting forces to the bed of a machine tool.
    • The material used for manufacturing of guideways should possess High wear resistance, high damping qualities, and low ductility.

Lathe Parts-4.Prime Mover:

    • Whatever the energy required for performing the machining operation is obtained from Prime mover.
    • The very first Prime mover used in machining is IC engine but because of noise pollution and result of the reciprocating parts after the invention of electrical Motors, the electrical Motors are used as a prime mover in the machine tools.
    • Whenever the power supply is given to the induction motor, it always starts rotating at only one particular rpm i.e. designed rpm.

Lathe Parts-5.Transmission System:

    • Even though prime mover is rotating at only one particular RPM, to get the different RPM of the spindle on a job during machining of different sizes of the components at different velocities, it is required to use mechanical transmission system between the prime mover and the spindle.
    • The most commonly used mechanical transmission system is the belt drive with stepped pulley because during machining operation any sudden increase Inf forces will cost to split the belt but no failure is taking place.

6.Head Stock:

The headstock is acting as a house for keeping some of the parts like transmission system, Prime mover etc. and it also acts as a support for supporting the components at one side.

7.Spindle:

    • It is the hollow shaft used for transmitting power from the transmission system to the workpiece.
    • It also supports the longer length of the workpiece during machining.

8.Chuck:

It is a work holding device used for holding the workpiece at one end.

Chuck Is classified into two types:

1.3-Jaw self-centering: It is used for cylindrical and circular shape jobs

2.4-Jaw independent: It is used for noncircular jobs.

9.Feed Gear Box:

It is used for transmitting power from spindle to the lead screw at different speeds.

10.Thread Chasing Dial:(TCD)

It is used in thread cutting operation for reducing multiples start of the thread with multiple cuts.

11.Split nut:

Split nut with the lead screw will be used for converting rotational movement into linear movement.

12.Carriage:

The carriage is the device used for carrying a moving part in a lathe machine globally.

13.Slideways with Saddle:

It is used for moving the tool locally.

14.Compound Rest:

It is used for rotating the tool to perform the taper turning operation.

15.Tool Post:

It is the device which is used for holding the tool.

16.Tailstock with Dead Centre:

It is used for supporting the workpiece at the other end.

17.Quill:

For localized movement of the Dead Centre, Quill will be used.

In general, the axis of the Dead Centre will be coinciding with the axis of the spindle or chuck but sometimes to perform the taper turning operation, the dead center can be absent by moving the tailstock in the transverse direction.

Lathe Parts-Accessories:

18.Face Plate: It is used for holding the irregular shape of the workpieces.

19.Catch Plate or Dog Plate:

Catch plate is used for positive power transmission from live Centre to the workpiece.

20.Mandrel:

Mandrel is used during machining of thin hollow cylindrical jobs without any bending of the component.

21.Steady Rest:

It is a support used for supporting long cylindrical jobs during machining to avoid the bending or deflection of the workpiece.

22.Follower Rest:

To avoid the building of the workpiece, due to the cutting forces acting by the tool, exactly opposite to the tool, a support is provided and it is moving along with the tool called as follower rest.

11 Lathe Operations You Must Know:

The operations which are performed on the lathe machine are called as lathe operations.

The different types of lathe operations are as follows.

  1. Turning
  2. Facing
  3. Thread Cutting
  4. Drilling
  5. Boring
  6. Counterboring
  7. Countersinking
  8. Reaming
  9. Trepanning
  10. Spot Facing
  11. Honing

The detailed explanation of above lathe operations was as follows.

1.Turning:

The process of removing a material from the circumference of the workpiece is called as Turning Operation.

Step Turning Operation:

If the material is removed in terms of steps from the surface of the workpiece then it is called as Step turning operation.

Taper Turning Operation:

The turning operation used for producing tapered components is called as taper turning operation.

2.Facing or Face Turning Operation:

The turning operation used for reducing the length of the component is called as face turning operation.

3.Thread Cutting:

The turning operation used for producing the threads on the surface of components is called as thread cutting operation.

4.Drilling Operation:

It is an operation used for producing holes in the components.

5.Boring Operation:

It is an inter turning operation used for enlarging the existing hole by some amount called as boring operation.

6.Counterboring Operation:

The Boring operation used for enlarging the end of the hole is called as counterboring.

7.Counter Sinking Operation:

Conical enlargement of an end of the hole is called as countersinking Operation.

8.Reaming:

Reaming is similar to drilling operation used for removing a small amount of material for sizing and finishing of the hole to get exact dimensions.

The maximum size of the hole produced by using in stages method of drilling operation is up to 50 mm only.

9.Trepanning Operation:

It is the operation of producing large size holes without drilling operation called as the Trepanning.

10.Spot Facing:

Making the surface of the hole flat and Square for the proper sitting of the bolt head or nut is called as Spot facing Operation.

Spot facing is done by using end mill cutter with a drilling machine.

11.Honing Operation:

Honing is the finishing operation used for producing an excellent surface finish on the holes.

These are the different lathe Operations performed on the lathe machine with high dedication and accuracy.

Read:

These are the 22 Parts of Lathe A Mechanical Engineer Must Know in his Mechanical Engineering Career.

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