Engineering Workshop Machining MECHANICAL THEORY

Machining Process:Types,Advantages, Limitations, Machine Tool, Cutting Tool, Chips

Machining Process: It is a process in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired shape and size by means of sharp cutting tools called as Machining Process.

Machining:Types,Advantages, Limitations, Machine Tool, Cutting Tool, Chips
Machining: Types, Advantages, Limitations, Machine Tool, Cutting Tool, Chips

1.Machining Process

1.1 Types of Machining Operations

1.2 Advantages of Machining Process

1.3 Limitations of Machining Process

1.4 What is Machine Tool?

1.5 What is Cutting Tool?

1.6 What are Chips in Manufacturing?

2. Principle and Construction of Lathe Machine

3. Principle and Construction of Drilling Machine

4. Principle and Construction of Grinding Machine

5. CNC-Advantages and Parts of CNC System

6.Advanced Manufacturing Methods(AMS)

6.1 Need for Micromachining

6.2 Principle and Applications of AMS

6.2.1 Principle, Applications, Advantages, Limitations of USM

6.2.2 Principle, Applications, Advantages, Limitations of ECM

6.2.3 Principle, Applications, Advantages, Limitations of EDM

6.3 Additive Manufacturing: Applications, Materials, Advantages, Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering 


1.1 Types of Machining Operations:

There are two types of machining process.

1.Conventional Machining Process

  • Drilling
  • Milling
  • Turning
  • Boring etc.

2.UnConventional Machining Process: An advanced to Conventional Machining processes

  • USM (Ultrasonic Machining)
  • EDM (Electric Discharge Machining)
  • ECM (Electro Chemical Machining)
  • Laser Machining
  • Wire-cut EDM etc.

1.2 Advantages of Machining Process:

  • A high surface finish can be obtained.
  • Machining is not only performed on the metal but it also performs on wood, plastic, composites, and ceramics.
  • Variety of geometry features are possible, such a Screw threads, Very straight edges, Accurate round holes etc.
  • Good dimensional accuracy.

1.3 Limitations of Machining Process:

  • The accuracy of the components produce is dependent on the efficiency of the operator.
  • The consistency in manufacturing is not present. Hence 100% inspection of the component is required.
  • The personal needs of the operator are reducing the production rates.
  • Because of a large amount of Manpower involved, the labor problem will also be high.
  • The complex shapes like parabolic Curvature components, Cubicle Curvature components are difficult to manufacture.
  • Frequent design changes in the component cannot be incorporated into the existing layout.

To overcome the above disadvantages, the advanced machining methods like NC, CNC, DNC, FMS, etc. have been developed.

1.4 What is Machine Tool?

A machine tool is a power-driven device used for sizing, shaping, and processing of a product to the desired accuracy by removing the excess material in the form of chips.

Ex: Lathe Machine, Drilling Machine, Shaping Machine, Planar Machine etc.

1.5 What is Cutting Tool?

A cutting tool is used to remove the material from the surface of the workpiece. It must be harder than the workpiece to carry out the operation.

There are two types of cutting tools.

(a) Single-Point Cutting Tool and

(b) Multi-Point Cutting Tool.

(a) Single-Point Cutting Tool:

  • A single-point cutting tool has only one edge for cutting.
  • This single-point cutting tool is used as a cutting tool in turning operation.
  • Other Examples include the tools used in lathe, Planing, Shaping etc.

(b) Multi-Point Cutting Tool:

  • A Multi-point cutting tool has more than one edges for cutting Operation.
  • This multi-point cutting tool is used as a cutting tool in the drilling operation, milling operation etc.
  • Ex: Milling cutter, Grinding wheel, Drill bit etc.

1.6 What are Chips in Machining?

The unwanted material removed from the surface of the workpiece due to the application of load upon the cutting tool called as Chips.

There are two types of chips.

1.Discontinuous chips

2.Continuous chips

Discontinuous chips:

The Discontinuous chips are simply thrown away from the work zone during machining.

Continuous chips:

The Continuous chips may get adhered or welded onto the rake face of the tool due to the high temperature called as Built Up Edge formation(BUE).

2.Principle and Construction of Lathe:

The detailed explanation of Principle and Construction of Lathe was presented HERE

3.Principle and Construction of Drilling:

The Radial Drilling Machine was Explained HERE with Advantages, limitations, and Applications in a detailed manner.

4.Principle and Construction of Grinding Machine:

The Surface Grinding Machine was Explained HERE with Advantages, limitations, and Applications in a detailed manner. 

5.CNC-Advantages and Parts of CNC System:

The detailed explanation of NC, CNC, Parts of CNC Machine, Servomotor and their Applications were presented HERE

6. Advanced Manufacturing Methods(AMS):

There is the need of Advanced Manufacturing Methods to increase the efficiency and surface finish of various components. There are various limitations of conventional Machining Methods and that’s the reason, advanced manufacturing methods come into consideration where high dedication and accuracy is maintained.

Some of the Advanced Manufacturing Methods are as follows.

  1. USM (Ultrasonic Machining)
  2. EDM (Electric Discharge Machining)
  3. ECM (Electro Chemical Machining)
  4. WJM (Water Jet Machining)
  5. AWJM (Abrasive Water Jet Machining)
  6. EBM (Electron Beam MAchining)
  7. LBM (Laser Beam Machining)

6.1 Need for Micromachining:

There is no case of Micromachining in Conventional Machining methods and that has been fed up with the Unconventional Machining Methods(Advanced Manufacturing Methods) because of the following reasons.

In the case of a drilling operation, by conventional methods, you can drill a hole of minimum 5mm and less than that is not possible because the drill bit cannot able to sustain the vibrations developed during the machining process and that’s the reason, less than 5 mm holes can be done by advanced methods where there is a need of micromachining.

Here, in Advanced Manufacturing Methods, the hole size of less than 1mm is also possible by Ultrasonic Machining Method.

Zig-Zag holes or Contours are not possible by conventional methods but it is possible by Advanced manufacturing methods.

Micromachining can also make holes on brittle materials and also soft materials like rubber.

By all these, there is a need for Micromachining which is possible only through Advanced Manufacturing Methods.

6.2 Principle and Applications of AMS:

6.2.1 Principle and Applications of Ultrasonic Machining Method was HERE

6.2.2 Principle and Applications of Electrochemical Machining Method was HERE

6.2.3 Principle and Applications of Electric Discharge Machining was HERE

Additive Manufacturing:

Additive Manufacturing: Fused Deposition Modelling, Selective Laser Sintering(SLS)


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