Types of Lubrication Systems:Lubrication is the admittance of oil having relative motion between two surfaces and it also reduces wear and tear between the parts having relative motion.

Note: Download Types of Lubrication Systems PDF at the end of the article. 

There are two types of Lubrication systems which are presented below.

1.Splash Lubrication system

2.Pressure Lubrication system

The detailed explanation of Splash Lubrication system and Pressure Lubrication system is as follows…

Types of Lubrication Systems-Splash lubrication System:

Splash lubrication is commonly used in early motorcycles engines.

This technique is used in lawn mower and motors or outboard boat engines that should have sufficient amounts of oil in the trough to fully lubricate the machine.

splash Lubrication syatem
splash Lubrication syatem

Components of Splash Lubrication System:

The following components are as follows…

  1. Crankcase (for oil storage)
  2. Oil Strainer
  3. Oil Pump
  4. Oil Troughs
  5. Crankshaft
  6. Scoop (Connected at the end of connecting rod)
  7. Piston
  8. Cam Shaft
  9. Oil Pressure Gauge

Splash Lubrication System-Working:

Firstly oil is filled in the Crankcase.Oil strainer will remove any impurities present in the oil and the oil pump will supply it to all the parts including oil troughs.

In the splash lubrication system, oil is splashed up from the oil trough or oil trays in the lower part of the crankcase with each revolution of the crankshaft to produce the oil splash.

The oil is thrown upward either as droplets or fine mist and provides adequate lubrication to piston pins,piston rings, valve mechanisms, cylinder walls etc.Oil flows through the holes drilled inside the crankshaft and main bearing to lubricate them.

splash lubrication system-scoop
splash lubrication system-scoop

This system is too uncertain for automotive applications. 

Make sure, the crankcase must be filled completely with the oil so that, oil level in the troughs is maintained.

Full of oil in the trough results in oil consumption and excess lubrication whereas slightly low level of oil results in inadequate lubrication and failure of the engine.

Types of Lubrication Systems-Pressure Lubrication System:

The Pressure Lubrication system is universally used in modern car engines.

The Pressure Lubrication system has come into picture because the Splash Lubrication system is not suitable for automobile engines due to the absence of positive lubrication.

Components of Pressure Lubrication System:

  1. Crankcase (for oil storage)
  2. Oil Strainer
  3. Oil Pump
  4. Oil Troughs
  5. Crankshaft
  6. Oil Galleries
  7. Piston
  8. Cam Shaft
  9. Oil Pressure Gauge

Pressure Lubrication System-Working:

In this system, Oil is taken from the wet sump through the strainer by the pump and delivers it at a pressure of 200 to 400 Kpa to the main oil gallery.

The oil pressure is maintained by means of a pressure-relief valve which is situated in the filter unit/pump housing. An oil pressure regulator ensures that the oil pressure level is maintained properly.

Pressure Lubrication system
Pressure Lubrication system

For inline engines,one main gallery is used whereas for V-Engines one/two main galleries are used.

The oil filter removes all the dust particles present in the oil and supplies clean oil to all the oil lines. The pressurised oil flows through the oil lines and galleries so as to lubricate the moving engine parts.

Oil from the main gallery flows through the holes drilled inside the crankshaft and main bearing to lubricate them.The oil sprout connected with the gallery, forces the oil upwards to lubricate the piston and all the parts of it from inside.

Oil flows through the oil rings to lubricate and form a thin film around the cylinder walls. After all the parts are lubricated in first gallery, the oil will be pumped to the second gallery which can lubricate all the parts connected with camshaft

The sprouts connected to the gallery helps in lubricating camshaft,valves and valve springs. After lubricating the engine parts, oil begins to flow downwards through a seperate passage to the sump.A pressure gauge calculates the oil pressure in the system and displays it on the dial.

This is the detailed explanation of Types of Lubrication Systems: Splash Lubrication System, Pressure Lubrication System in a detailed way.

If you have any doubts, feel free to ask from the comments section.


Read other articles from Unit -1:


Image Credits:Images 1,2,3 are taken from the Text book of Automobile Engineering by Dr.Kirpal Singh

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Mohammed SHAFI

Mr. Mohammed Shafi is an Assistant Professor at Sreenidhi Institute of Science & Technology. By education, he is a Mechanical Engineer and expertise in CAD & CAM. Mechanical Students is his first...

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