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Vernier Caliper PDF- Formula,Principle,L.C, Range, Resolution,Adv&Disadv

Vernier Caliper- Mechanical Engineers must know about this tool: It is used to measure the dimensions of the given specimen like diameter(Outer Dia and Inner dia), length and depth etc. The Topics which comes under this article are as follows.

Note: Download Vernier Caliper PDF at the end of the article.


  1. Working Principle of Vernier Caliper
  2. Diagram Of Vernier Caliper
  3. A formula of Vernier Caliper
  4. Least count
  5. An experiment Conduction 
  6. Invention of VC
  7. Range of Vernier
  8. Resolution or Reading of Vernier
  9. Difference between Dial Caliper and Vernier Caliper?
  10. Instrument Error of Vernier or Tolerance
  11. Advantages of Vernier
  12. Disadvantages of Vernier

1.Working Principle of Vernier Caliper(VC):

  1. Calipers are nothing but the Jaws which are used to fix the given component.
  2. It consists of two jaws i.e.Upper Jaw and the Lower Jaw.
  3. Upper Jaws are used to measure the Inner diameter of the given specimen whereas Lower jaws are used to measure the outer diameter of the given specimen.
  4. It consists of two scales. One is the Main Scale and the other is the Vernier Scale. Both these scales are measured in Inches as well as in millimeter.
  5. The locking pin is used to tighten the jaws at the given measurement.

How to Measure the Depth of the given specimen?

The measuring depth probe is used to measure the depth of the given specimen.

How can you check any Measurement?

  • In order to calculate the dimensions, the given specimen is to be placed between the two jaws. One is a fixed jaw and the other is a movable jaw.
  • The object is to be placed in between the two jaws and is fixed by means of locking pin.

2.Diagram Of Vernier Caliper:

Vernier Callipers- Formula,Construction,Expt.-Every Engineer Must know
Vernier Caliper- Formula, Construction, Expt.-Every Engineer Must know

3.A formula of Vernier Caliper:

The formula of Vernier calipers was shown below.

  Measurement = M.S.R+(V.S.R*L.C)

4.Least Count of Vernier Caliper:   

The least count was calculated as follows.

 Least Count(L.C)=1 MSD-1VSD

5.Experiment Conduction:

Calculation of M.S.R:

If the zeroth division of the vernier scale is coincided with (some number) on the Main scale(consider it as 10) then 10mm is the Main scale Reading(M.S.R).

Calculation of V.S.R:

After that, you need to check which division on the vernier is exactly coinciding with the main scale as shown below in the fig.

vernier callipers-least count
vernier calipers-least count
  • If you see in the above figure,10th division in the vernier scale is exactly coinciding with a division on the Main scale. Therefore you need to count the no.of divisions from 0-10.
  • The no.of divisions from (0-1) on a vernier scale is 5 divisions.

Therefore,upto (0-10),it is 50 divisons.So,take the V.S.R=50.

Calculation of L.C:

Least Count(L.C)=1 MSD-1VSD

1 VSD =(49/50)MSD

                = 0.98 MSD


Least Count(L.C)=1 MSD-1VSD


(L.C)=1 MSD- 0.98 MSD

         =0.02 mm


Measurement = M.S.R+ (V.S.R*L.C)


                       =10+1 =11mm

In this way, you can measure the dimension of an object.

The invention of Vernier Caliper:

The vernier scale was invented by French mathematician Pierre Vernier in 1631.

They usually show either metric or imperial measurements and in some of the cases, it measures both. 

Range of Vernier:

The range of a vernier caliper is the difference between the largest value and the smallest value that a caliper can measure and It is equivalent to the length of the main scale.

Mostly, vernier calipers have a range of 6 inches i.e.300mm.

Resolution or Vernier Reading:

A Caliper’s resolution is indicated at the end of the vernier scale and it is the smallest distance that the caliper can measure. 

Resolution of Vernier Calipers
Resolution of Vernier Calipers

The resolution of

  • Imperial vernier calipers is usually 0.001 in, whereas for
  • Metric calipers is either 0.05mm or 0.02mm.

What is the difference between a dial caliper and a Vernier caliper?

In almost all industries people were using the vernier caliper, not of dial mode and thereby there is a little chance(in terms of microns) that they will get an error. 

The basic difference between the standard vernier and the Dial Vernier is as follows.

Dial Caliper or Digital Vernier: Direct Reading(Perfect Reading) will be displayed.

Standard Vernier: Manual Reading(You need to check manually).

Digital Vernier Calipers
Digital Vernier Calipers

Instrument error or tolerance:

An Instrument error refers to how accurate a vernier caliper is.

Low tolerance measuring tools provide very accurate results with a small margin for error and Vernier calipers is one of them.

Advantages of Vernier Caliper:

Accuracy and Precision:

They provide precise and accurate measurements over a large range. 


It can have the ability to measure any type of dimensions of a component i.e.

  • It can measure the outer diameter of the given component.
  • It can measure the Inner diameter of the given component.
  • It can measure the depth of the given component.
  • It can measure the length of the given component.


As the Vernier is made up of Stainless steel(Anti-Corrosive material), it can sustain for a long period of time and thereby its durability will be high.


It is relatively less expensive compared to other calipers.

Ruler or Measuring Tapes:

If you want the accuracy, you should have to leave the rulers or measuring tapes for the measurement of any component.

Disadvantages of Vernier Caliper:

Possibility of Errors:

It needs much concentration to read a dimension of the component else there is a possibility of error.

Accurate Tools:

If you are unable to use vernier calipers, then you can go for the other accurate tools present in the industry like Dial Caliper.

Magnifying Glass or Eyesight:

Good Magnifying glass is required during taking the measurement of any component if your eyesight is not proper else it results in taking the errors as the original measurement.

This is the detailed explanation of Vernier Caliper along with its Formula, Construction, Experiment. Every Mechanical Engineer Must has to know this tool and the experiment too. If you like this article, Then share it with all your friends.


Note: PDF Download

You can download Vernier Caliper PDF by the below links

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