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Vernier Caliper- Formula, Construction, Expt.-Every Engineer Must know

Vernier Caliper- Mechanical Engineers must know about this tool: It is used to measure the dimensions of the given specimen like diameter(Outer Dia and Inner dia), length and depth etc. The Topics which comes under this article are as follows.

  1. Construction of Vernier Caliper
  2. Diagram Of Vernier Caliper
  3. A formula of Vernier Caliper
  4. Least count
  5. An experiment of Vernier Caliper 

1.Construction of Vernier Caliper:

  1. Calipers are nothing but the Jaws which are used to fix the given component.
  2. It consists of two jaws i.e.Upper Jaw and the Lower Jaw.
  3. Upper Jaws are used to measure the Inner diameter of the given specimen whereas Lower jaws are used to measure the outer diameter of the given specimen.
  4. The measuring depth probe is used to measure the depth of the given specimen.
  5. It consists of two scales. One is the Main Scale and the other is the Vernier Scale. Both these scales are measured in Inches as well as in millimeter.
  6. The locking pin is used to tighten the jaws at the given measurement.

How can you check any Measurement?

  • In order to calculate the dimensions, the given specimen is to be placed between the two jaws. One is fixed jaw and the other is a movable jaw.
  • The object is to be placed in between the two jaws and is fixed by means of locking pin.

2.Diagram Of Vernier Caliper:

Vernier Callipers- Formula,Construction,Expt.-Every Engineer Must know
Vernier Caliper- Formula, Construction, Expt.-Every Engineer Must know

3.A formula of Vernier Caliper:

The formula of Vernier calipers was shown below.

 Measurement = M.S.R+(V.S.R*L.C)

4.Least Count of Vernier Caliper: 

The least count was calculated as follows.

 Least Count(L.C)=1 MSD-1VSD

5.An experiment of Vernier Caliper:

Calculation of M.S.R:

If the zeroth division of the vernier scale is coincided with (some number) on the Main scale(consider it as 10) then 10mm is the Main scale Reading(M.S.R).

Calculation of V.S.R:

After that, you need to check which division on the vernier is exactly coinciding with the main scale as shown below in the fig.

vernier callipers-least count
vernier calipers-least count
  • If you see in the above figure,10th division in the vernier scale is exactly coinciding with a division on the Main scale. Therefore you need to count the no.of divisions from 0-10.
  • The no.of divisions from (0-1) on a vernier scale is 5 divisions.

Therefore,upto (0-10),it is 50 divisons.So,take the V.S.R=50.

Calculation of L.C:

  • Least Count(L.C)=1 MSD-1VSD
  • 1 VSD =(49/50)MSD

 = 0.98 MSD

As, Least Count(L.C)=1 MSD-1VSD


(L.C)=1 MSD- 0.98 MSD

 =0.02 mm


Measurement = M.S.R+(V.S.R*L.C)


 =10+1 =11mm

In this way, you can measure the dimension of an object.

This is the detailed explanation of Vernier Caliper along with its Formula, Construction, Experiment. Every Mechanical Engineer Must has to know this tool and the experiment too. If you like this article, Then share it with all your friends.


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