Engineering Workshop Welding Concepts

Welding Process-Methods of Joining,Weld joints,Coated Electrode, Specification,Properties of Flux

Welding Process: It is a process of joining two or more similar or dissimilar metals with or without the application of heat, with or without the application of pressure, with or without the application of filler material.

  • The welding process is widely used as a fabrication of joining two or more parts and repairing process in industries.


Some of the applications of welding include the fabrication of automobile bodies, ships, pressure vessels, welded pipes, bridges, sealing of explosives, etc.

Below is the Tabular Column consists of all the concepts in the article. Just click them to read that particular concept.

Tabular Column:

1.Welding Process

2.Various Methods of Joining

3.Types of Welding Processes

4.Welding Joints

5.Coated Electrode

6.Electrode Specification

7.Properties of Flux

Welding Process
Welding Process-Definition, Applications, Methods of Joining, Weld’s joints, Coated Electrode

Welding Process: Various Methods of Joining

There are various methods for joining two plates/sheets etc and are as follows.

1. Welding

2. Riveting

3. Nut and Bolts or Screws

4. Soldering

5. Brazing

The explanation of the above terms is as follows.


It is already explained above.


  • Rivets are used to join metals, plastics, Sheet metals, and plywood.
  • It is a Permanent Joint.
  • First, holes are made on the surface of the sheet/plate and the rivets are inserted between the two such sheets so that it can form a joint.

Ex: Bus Top is enclosed by the shell. The shell is formed by joining of the individual sheets by Rivets.

Types of Rivets:

  1. Snap Head Rivet
  2. Pan Head Rivet
  3. Countersunk Head Rivet
  4. Flat Head Rivet
  5. Pop Head Rivet

3. Nuts and Bolts or Screws

Screws are generally used in the household applications to fix anybody to the wall or Nails to the Wood.

Nuts and Bolts are generally used in Industrial Applications where the machine parts are joined by the Nuts and Bolts.


Soldering is a type of brazing which works at lower temperatures.

  • Soft soldering is used to make permanent joints and is normally used to join components to electronic circuit boards.
  • Hard soldering is applicable for stronger joints.


  • Brazing is a process of joining materials by melting a filler metal between the components.
  • The filler metals must have a lower melting point than that of the material being joined.
  • Brazing forms very strong and permanent joints.

Types of Welding Process:

Welding Process has been classified based on Fusion, Non-Fusion, and Pressure Welding processes.

Click on the link for detailed Explanation: Types of Welding Processes

Welding Joints or Weld Joints:

Weld Joint design is greatly influenced by:

  • The accessibility of the Weld Joint
  • Cost of repairing the joint
  • It’s adaptability for the product being designed or welded.
  • Type of loading, the weld is able to withstand.

The different types of welding Joints that are commonly used are shown in the above figure.

1. Butt Joint

2. Corner Joint

3. Edge Joint

4. Lap Joint

5. Tee Joint

Coated Electrode:

An electrode is a piece of wire or a rod of a metal or alloy, with or without coatings. An arc is set up between electrode and workpiece. Welding electrodes are classified into the following types.

  1. Consumable Electrodes
  2. Bare Electrodes
  3. Carbon or Graphite Electrodes
  4. Tungsten Electrodes
  5. Non-consumable Electrodes

Coated Electrodes:

  • Coated electrodes have a flux coating which starts melting as soon as an electric arc is struck.
  • This coating on melting performs many functions like prevention of joint from atmospheric contamination, arc stabilizers, etc.

Advantages of coatings given on the electrodes:

  • It can be de-oxidizes the melt.
  • It can absorb gases present in the weld pool.
  • It can form a slag layer over the weld bead.
  • It can stabilize the arc.
  • It can produce shielding gases like Hydrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.
  • It can supply alloying elements to the weld bead for improving the mechanical properties.

This is the explanation of Welding-Definition, Applications, Methods of Joining, Weld joints, Coated Electrode in a detailed way.

Electrode Specification E-7018X:

Electrode plays a vital role in the welding process. Without electrodes also, many welding processes are present which are used in high-end applications. In this article, I will explain about the specification of Electrode E-7018X in a detailed manner. Electrode specification is must in any welding process and the specification of Electrode E-7018X is as follows.

  • The electrode E-7018X stands for
    • E-Electrode
    • 70-How strong the electrode is when welded
    • 1-in what welding positions it can be used
    • 8-indicates coating,current types,penetration
    • X-indicates that there are more requirements.

Features of Electrode E-7018X:

    • They(E-7018X) are low hydrogen flux coated steel rods with a high yield tensile strength of 70000 PSI.
    • They are often used in assembling structural steel used in the construction industry.
    • These electrodes are called low hydrogen electrodes due to every attempt to lower the hydrogen content, these electrodes must be stored in an oven with a temperature between (250-300) Degree Fahrenheit.
This is the complete explanation of Electrode Specification and Features which is shown in a detailed manner. If you have any doubts, feel free to ask from the comments section. Please Share and Like this blog with the whole world so that it can reach to many.

Properties of Flux in Welding Process:

Flux acts as a coating on the surface of the electrode in the welding process but what exactly does this flux do and what are its functions, Properties, and Applications were the major concepts which were discussed in this post. The definition of Flux was as follows.

Flux: During the gas welding operation, the welder is periodically removing the filler rod and dipping into a powder from a welding zone called flux powder.

Welding Definition: Welding is a process of joining two or more similar or dissimilar metals with or without the application of heat, with or without the application of pressure, with or without the application of filler material.

Properties of Flux in Welding
Properties of Flux in Welding-Definition, Functions, Properties, and Applications

Functions of flux in Welding:

  • To deoxidize the melt
  • To absorb gases present in the molten metal.
  • To form a slag layer over the weld bead for protecting the weld bead from atmospheric contamination.

Properties of Flux in Welding:

  • It can deoxidize the melt.
  • It can absorb gases
  • It can form a slag layer.
  • It has a low density.
  • The melting point should be less than a Melting point of Filler rod and Parent material.
  • It should not produce any harmful gases.

Applications of Flux in Welding:

  • During gas welding of Carbon or Nickel alloys, there is no flux to be used because the presence of Carbon or Nickel itself acts as deoxidizers.
  • Borax will be commonly used flux during gas welding of all other metals.

This is the complete explanation of Properties of Flux in Welding along with Functions and Applications in a detailed way.

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